Male Infertility: Signs, Causes, Prevention, Diagnosis & Treatment

Male Infertility: Signs, Causes, Prevention, Diagnosis & Treatment

28 February 2024

Male Infertility: Signs, Causes, Prevention, Diagnosis & Treatment

Understanding Male Infertility

Male infertility is a sensitive topic that often goes undiscussed. It affects a significant number of couples worldwide. Contrary to common misconceptions, infertility is not solely a female concern; men contribute equally to the conception process. The inability to conceive can be attributed to various factors on the male side, necessitating a thorough exploration.

Signs of Male Infertility

Recognizing the signs of male infertility is crucial for timely intervention. While the absence of pregnancy may be the most apparent indication, other subtle signs include:

  1. Changes in Sexual Function: Erectile dysfunction, difficulty ejaculating, or reduced sexual desire may signal an underlying issue.

  2. Pain or Swelling: Discomfort, pain, or swelling in the testicle area could indicate a potential problem.

  3. Abnormal Semen Analysis: Irregularities in sperm count, motility, or morphology as revealed by a semen analysis.

  4. Hormonal Imbalances: Issues with hormone levels, particularly testosterone, can impact fertility.

Causes of Male Infertility

  1. Sperm Quality and Quantity: Healthy sperm is a cornerstone of male fertility. Factors such as low sperm count, poor sperm motility, and abnormal sperm morphology can significantly impact fertility. Various lifestyle choices, including smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and drug use, can contribute to these issues.

  2. Hormonal Imbalances: Hormonal imbalances, such as low testosterone levels or high levels of estrogen, can disrupt the delicate hormonal symphony required for optimal sperm production. Conditions like hypogonadism or pituitary disorders may contribute to these imbalances.

  3. Varicocele: A varicocele is the enlargement of veins within the scrotum, affecting sperm production and quality. This common cause of male infertility can often be surgically corrected, improving fertility outcomes.

  4. Genetic Factors: Genetic abnormalities, such as chromosomal disorders or mutations, can impact sperm production and function. A thorough genetic evaluation may be necessary to identify and understand these factors.

Prevention Strategies

While some causes of male infertility are beyond our control, there are proactive steps individuals can take to enhance fertility:

  1. Adopting a Healthy Lifestyle: Maintain a balanced diet, exercise regularly, and avoid harmful habits like smoking and excessive alcohol or drug use. A healthy lifestyle positively influences overall reproductive health.

  2. Avoiding Overheating of the Testicles: Prolonged exposure to high temperatures, such as in hot tubs or saunas, can negatively affect sperm production. Wearing loose-fitting underwear and avoiding hot environments can help preserve sperm quality.

  3. Managing Stress: Chronic stress can impact hormonal balance, potentially affecting sperm production. Adopt stress-reducing techniques such as yoga, meditation, or counseling to promote emotional well-being.

Diagnosing Male Infertility

  1. Initial Assessment: A comprehensive medical history and physical examination form the foundation of male infertility diagnosis. Understanding the patient’s lifestyle, habits and any pre-existing conditions is crucial.

  2. Semen Analysis: Semen analysis is a pivotal diagnostic tool, evaluating sperm count, motility, and morphology. This analysis helps identify potential issues with sperm production and function.

  3. Hormonal Testing: Hormonal imbalances can play a significant role in male infertility. Blood tests can assess levels of testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH).

Advanced Treatments for Male Infertility

Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART):

  1. Intrauterine Insemination (IUI): IUI is a minimally invasive procedure where carefully processed sperm is directly inserted into the woman’s uterus during her fertile window. This method enhances the chances of sperm reaching the egg, bypassing potential obstacles.

  2. In Vitro Fertilization (IVF): IVF involves the fertilization of an egg by sperm outside the body, followed by the transfer of the embryo into the woman’s uterus. This approach is particularly effective in cases of moderate to severe male infertility or when other treatments have not yielded success.

  3. Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI): ICSI involves the direct injection of a single sperm into an egg to facilitate fertilization. This method is especially beneficial when sperm quality is severely compromised, as it increases the likelihood of successful fertilization.

    With ICSI only one good sperm is required to fertilise an egg. With ICSI pregnancy can be achieved in extreme male sub fertility , like when there is no sperm in semen by using sperms retrieved directly from testis or when there is no motile sperms in ejaculate. 

Surgical Interventions:

  1. Varicocelectomy: Varicocele, a swelling of the veins that drain the testicle, can impact sperm production. Varicocelectomy is a surgical procedure to repair these veins, potentially improving sperm quality and count.

  2. Vasectomy Reversal: For men who have undergone a vasectomy but wish to restore fertility, vasectomy reversal is an option. This microsurgical procedure reconnects the vas deferens, allowing sperm to once again be present in the ejaculate.
  3. Ejaculatory Duct Resection: In cases where ejaculatory duct obstruction is identified, surgical resection may be recommended to clear the passage for sperm to travel during ejaculation.

Hormonal Therapies:

  1. Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT): Patients having zero sperm count where the reason is hormonal insufficiency may help from this treatment. There is a very small group of subfertile males who are ideal candidates for this treatment.

  2. Clomiphene Citrate: This medication stimulates the release of hormones necessary for sperm production and can be beneficial in a few selected patients.


At Bavishi Fertility Institute, our commitment is to guide and support couples on their journey to parenthood. By understanding the signs, causes, prevention strategies, diagnosis and advanced treatments for male infertility, we empower our patients to make informed decisions and embark on a path towards achieving their dream of building a family.

Remember, seeking professional guidance is paramount. If you or someone you know is facing challenges with male infertility, contact us today to explore personalized solutions tailored to your unique situation. Together, we can navigate the complexities of infertility and bring hope to your family’s future.

Author Bio

Dr. Parth Bavishi

Dr. Parth Bavishi, MD in Obstetrics and Gynecology, brings over 12 years of invaluable work experience to his role as Director of Bavishi Fertility Institute, leading a group of IVF clinics committed to helping couples realise their dreams of parenthood. 

Bavishi Fertility Institute is dedicated to providing customised and personalised treatments which are simple, safe , smart and successful. Bavishi Fertility Institute works with success and satisfaction for all at heart. Providing an ideal blend of professional treatment and personalised care.

Dr Parth had special training in infertility at Bavishi fertility Institute, the Diamond Institute, USA, and the HART Institute, Japan.

Dr. Bavishi is a distinguished expert in his field. In addition to his clinical practice, Dr. Bavishi is the author of the acclaimed book, ‘Your Miracle in Making: A Couple’s Guide to Pregnancy,’ offering invaluable insights to couples navigating the complexities of fertility. He loves to empower patients to make the correct choice by education both online and offline .

His exceptional contributions have earned him the prestigious Rose of Paracelsus award from the European Medical Association. Dr Parth has been an invited faculty at many national and international conferences.

Beyond his professional endeavors, Dr. Bavishi is an avid traveller who finds solace in exploring new destinations. He also enjoys engaging his mind with brainy puzzles, always seeking new challenges and solutions outside of the medical realm.

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